describing the use of commas, semi colons, dashes etc. So here are the top 10 rules to observe when writing in Russian. Scores The en dash is used to report scores or results of contests. or hyphenated compound, some writers replace the customary hyphen with an en dash. Поскольку у англичан и американцев Em dash заменяет двоеточие, “I can't believe how pedantic Ken is about writing—doesn't he have.
Dash in writing
It is clearly seen from Table 1 that the only mark Russian punctuation lacks is an apostrophe. All the rest punctuation marks except quotation marks coincide in symbol. Yet their use requires detailed treatment. If the Indirect question starts with I wonder At the same time, there are some peculiarities in the use of these marks a Russian learner should take into account when writing in English.
Here are some examples. Both in Russian and English colons are used before a list: Away they run, pell-mell, helter-skelter, slap-dash: tearing, yelling, screaming, knocking down the passengers as they turn the corners, rousing up the dogs, and astonishing the fowls: and streets, squares, and courts, re-echo with the sound. In this situation, quotation marks are not used. But you should leave a blank line above and below the quoted material, like in this: Although I am not disposed to maintain that the being born in a workhouse, is in itself the most fortunate and enviable circumstance that can possibly befall a human being, I do mean to say that in this particular instance, it was the best thing for Oliver Twist that could by possibility have occurred.
It is possible to use a comma but not an exclamatory mark like in Russian after salutation in personal correspondence: Dear Sir: I have received your letter The two sentences are grammatically independent and often contain commas already, but their meaning is closely connected: Not being prepared, however, it alarmed him the more; so away he went like the wind, with the old gentleman and the two boys roaring and shouting behind him. The general rule is to use a semicolon before them and a comma after them when they introduce a complete sentence: You may be required to bring many items; e.
In Russian, though, they are generally spelled as one word compare long-haired and «длинноволосый». Englishmen separate a prefix from a word whose first letter is the same as the letter of the prefix by a hyphen, too: re-evaluate compare, for example, with the Russian verb «переезжать». It is necessary to remember that English punctuation distinguishes an en dash and an em dash. An en dash a short dash , which is a little longer than a hyphen, is used for periods of time when you might otherwise use to: the years — An em dash a long dash is sparingly used in formal writing and may replace commas, semicolons, colons, and brackets to indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought, to separate a comment or afterthought from the rest of the sentence.
Never have I met such a lovely person—before you. Meanwhile, punctuation can serve to emphasize particular words and even to indicate intonation for «авторская фразировка» we can refer you to . In general it is used to indicate a slight pause and to divide a sentence into several parts.
As most cases of the use of this punctuation mark are the same in lists, in direct address, to separate contrasting parts of a sentence, etc. Compare: He has been to London, too. He has been to London too. Actually, Russian learners do not have serious difficulty in using a comma, although some confusion may still arise. The example given at the beginning of the article proves the fact that the main difference in the use of a comma is to mark off nearly all subordinate clauses in Russian.
This often leads to overusing a comma in English where the choice of punctuation marks depends on the conjunction that joins the clause. The table below shows some basic rules. Table 2. There is no denying that defining and non-defining relative clauses are generally a major challenge even for quite good learners, who often mix them up.
Commas are not used: Is this the woman you told me about? A non-defining relative clause adds extra information of secondary importance. So it can be left out in a sentence. There are commas before and after it: Mr John, who has written several books, spoke at the meeting last night. Similarly, considerable difficulties often arise for Russians learners in punctuating Direct Speech because of some differences in the rules.
Mind the use of a dash after the quoted sentence in Russian. In Russian the new paragraph is signaled by a dash. No quotation marks are used here. Read more comments. A—B : In this case, B is a additional explanation about A. Portalife thank you! Британский южноамериканский вариант Упрощенный китайский Китай Британский английский вариант.
Source: punctuation guide the en dash is used to represent a span or range of numbers, dates, or time. There should be no space between the en dash and the adjacent material. You will find this material in chapters 8— The professor holds office hours every Wednesday, a.
If you introduce a span or range with words such as from or between, do not use the en dash. Correct: She served as secretary of state from to Incorrect: She served as secretary of state from — Scores The en dash is used to report scores or results of contests. Conflict or connection The en dash can also be used between words to represent conflict, connection, or direction. The liberal—conservative debate. The Los Angeles—London flight. There is a north—south railway in the same area as the highway that runs east—west.
Compound adjectives When a compound adjective is formed with an element that is itself an open compound or hyphenated compound, some writers replace the customary hyphen with an en dash. This is an aesthetic choice more than anything. For more on the hyphenation of compound adjectives, see here. Hyphen: She is an award-winning novelist. En dash: She is a National Book Award—winning novelist.
Hyphen: It was just one of many changes in this post-Clinton era.
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Dash in writing hack a bitcoin walletHyphen, En dash and Em dash in Word \u0026 its shortcut
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